Brody

Zolochiv district, Lviv region

Sources:
- Pinkas Hakehillot Polin: Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities, Poland, Volume II, published by Yad Vashem, Jerusalem.
- Russian Jewish encyclopedia
- Virtual Shtetl. Brody
- Jewish Cemeteries Initiative. Brody Jewish Cemetery

Photo:
- Eugene Shnaider
- Vitaliy Kamozin
- Claudia Erdheim, Das Stetl. Galizien und Bukowina 1890–1918. Album Verlag, Wien 2008
- Center for Jewish art. Brody
- Biblioteka Narodowa Polona. Brody
- Hummus. Ethnographic pictures from the archive of the Austro-Hungarian army
The first mention of a settlement on the site of Brody is dated 1084.
Brody was granted Magdeburg town rights by Polish King Stephen B?thory by virtue of a privilege issued in Lublin on 22 August 1584. It was named Lubicz after the Lubicz coat of arms of the founder, Stanislaw Zholkiewski, one of the most accomplished military commanders in Polish history (not to be confused with Lubech, Lubecz). The king also set up three annual fairs.
These privileges were confirmed by King Sigismund III Vasa in 1597 at the Warsaw Sejm. Already in documents from 1598 the city appeared under the name Brody. It was a private town of the Polish Crown, owned by houses of Zholkiewski, Koniecpolski and Potocki.

As a result of the First Partition of Poland, in 1772, Brody became a part of Habsburg Empire (from 1804 the Austrian Empire).

In 1919, Brody became part of the Second Polish Republic. It was the site of a battle during the Polish-Soviet War of 1920[8] and heavy destruction by both Polish and Russian forces, and is described extensively in stories of the Red Cavalry by famous Jewish writer Isaac Babel.

After the Soviet invasion of Poland, during World War II, in September 1939, Brody was occupied by the Red Army. After the war the town became part of the Ukrainian SSR.
Pototsky adapted the former castle to residence During the 1st world there were Russian troops here
Pototsky adapted the former castle to residence During the 1st world there were Russian troops here
The first Jews came to Brody when hetman Koniecpolski took the town over. Armenians, Flemish people (weavers), Turks, and Greeks followed their footsteps. Thanks to the foreigners it was possible to manufacture oriental fabrics (especially carpets and tents) in Brody (until the second half of the 18th century).

Stanisław Koniecpolski died and was buried in Brody in 1646. Two years later, Bohdan Khmelnytsky’s troops burnt the town down, but did not manage to capture a fortress. Several years later, the fortress was not captured by the Turks, either.

In the 1670s the town became a property of the Sobieskis, and at the beginning of 18th century – of the Potockis. In the first half of 18th century, Brody was devastated by the Russian and Saxon armies, and, in addition, by a great fire of the town center. The town was quickly rebuilt, i.a., thanks to the activity of Jewish merchants, who did not have any competition as the Armenians left the town in 1749. Since then Brody became one of the most important Jewish cities in Galicia.
The synagogue was built in 1742 on the site of a burned wooden. Photo of 2013 The Renaissance style was characteristic of defense synagogues of the 16-17th century, and in the Baroque era, the Jews decided not to invent anything Above the entrance of the baroque cartouche with the year of construction - 5502 from the creation of the world
The synagogue was built in 1742 on the site of a burned wooden. Photo of 2013 The Renaissance style was characteristic of defense synagogues of the 16-17th century, and in the Baroque era, the Jews decided not to invent anything Above the entrance of the baroque cartouche with the year of construction - 5502 from the creation of the world
Reconstruction was carried out in 5663 (1903) In the summer 2023, part of the synagogue collapsed Old Synagogue in Brody, beggining of the 20 centuty
Reconstruction was carried out in 5663 (1903) In the summer 2023, part of the synagogue collapsed Old Synagogue in Brody, beggining of the 20 centuty
Old Synagogue in Brody, beggining of the 20 centuty Old Synagogue in Brody, beggining of the 20 centuty. Women's balcony Old Synagogue in Brody, 1993
Old Synagogue in Brody, beggining of the 20 centuty Old Synagogue in Brody, beggining of the 20 centuty. Women's balcony Old Synagogue in Brody, 1993
Near the Old Synagogue there was a New Synagogue. This building was not preserved In the foreground is a New Synagogue, behind it is visible an Old Synagogue. Beginning of the 20th century The interior of the New Synagogue, beginning of the 20th century
Near the Old Synagogue there was a New Synagogue. This building was not preserved In the foreground is a New Synagogue, behind it is visible an Old Synagogue. Beginning of the 20th century The interior of the New Synagogue, beginning of the 20th century
Sinagogue on Schurata Street, 2000 Sinagogue on Schurata Street, 2006 The rebuilt building in the late 2010s
Sinagogue on Schurata Street, 2000 Sinagogue on Schurata Street, 2006 The rebuilt building in the late 2010s
On the right on the postcard depicts the building of the Jewish Hospital In the building on Zolota Street, 1 was the rule of the Jewish community Former Jewish school on Stusa Street, 14
On the right on the postcard depicts the building of the Jewish Hospital In the building on Zolota Street, 1 was the rule of the Jewish community Former Jewish school on Stusa Street, 14
As Brody was near the Austrian – Russian border, it became an important trade center since 1779. The Austrian Emperor, Joseph II granted a “free city” title to Brody.

In the first half of the 19th century, it was a second city in Galicia after Lviv. At the same time, Brody was an important Haskalah and Chassidic center.

In 1756, a spell over a followers of frankism was casted in synagogue, and in 1772 – over Chassidim (who were also expelled from the town for a couple of years).

One of the most prominent activists of the Jewish Enlightenment in Brody was Israel Lefin, son of Moses Ha-Lewi Zamość-Lefin, a friend of Moses Mendelssohn, a founder of the German Haskalah. Israel Lefin, a disciple of Mendelssohn, settled down in Brody and continued his research there. He was an astronomer, a mathematician and a philosopher, who wrote in Hebrew.

Another adherent of Haskalah from Brody was Isaac Erter, a Polish-Jewish satirist, who also wrote his satires in Hebrew. He was popular among the poor Jews for supporting them financially. He was a friend of the greatest exponents of Haskalah in Galicia: Salomon Juda Rappaport (the first rabbi of the Jewish Enlightenment in Tarnopol) and Nachman Krochmal (a philosopher, a historian and a theologian, born in Brody, but afterwards lived in Żуłkwia and Tarnopol).
Erter died in 1851 in Brody.

Dow Ber Blumenfeld and Joshua Heshel Schorr are another representatives of this movement in Brody. Thanks to Haskalah, the Jewish Realschule was founded in 1815.
Haskalah of Brody influenced some parts of Russia, as well. Its members were related with the German culture, and that is why Brody was assumed to be the most Germanized town in Galicia.
Although the Chassidim were officially banished from the town, Brody was an important Chassidic center at the turn of the 18th and the 19th centuries. Until the interwar period, the local Chassidim were strongly connected to the dynasty in Bełzie. Its founder, Shalom Rokeach was born in 1781 in Brody.

For nearly 50 years, rabbi Shlomo Kluger (1789 – 1869) was a Dayan. He was called “the Maggid from Brody”. Kluger was the author of 174 religious texts. He was a strong opponent of the Haskalah. Kluger died and was buried in Brody.

In the 19th century, Jews made up 88% of the town population.

It was the biggest city with county rights in Europe with such a high percentage of Jews. 10% of all Jewish traders from Galicia lived in Brody. They owned 93% of big commercial and industrial enterprises.
Thanks to the Josephian privileges, all buildings located at the town market were brick-built at the end of the 18th century.
Market Square in Brody, beginning of the 20th century
Market Square in Brody, beginning of the 20th century
A famous Austrian writer of Jewish descent Joseph Roth was born in Brody. He studied at this gymnasium  Gymnasium, 2015 A memorial plaque on the wall of the gymnasium
A famous Austrian writer of Jewish descent Joseph Roth was born in Brody. He studied at this gymnasium Gymnasium, 2015 A memorial plaque on the wall of the gymnasium
Zolota Street - central street of the city Jewish trading on Zolota street. 1910-1914
Zolota Street - central street of the city Jewish trading on Zolota street. 1910-1914
Old Synagogue in Brody, 2023 Aron kodesh The remains of the paintings of the wall
Old Synagogue in Brody, 2023 Aron kodesh The remains of the paintings of the wall
Old Synagogue in Brody, beggining of the 20 centuty Interior of the Old Synagogue Interior of the Old Synagogue New Synagogue in Brody, beggining of the 20 centuty
Old Synagogue in Brody, beggining of the 20 centuty Interior of the Old Synagogue Interior of the Old Synagogue New Synagogue in Brody, beggining of the 20 centuty
Year - Total Population - Jews

1618 -      (?)        - 400
1765 -      (?)     - 7,627
1783 - 13,609 - 11,137
1799 - 16,401 - 14,105
1820 - 18,627 - 16,392
1880 - 20,071 - 15,316
1900 - 17,361 - 11,912
1910 - 18,055 - 12,188
1921 -  10,800  - 7,202
1931 -      (?)     - 8,288
Brody was often called “Jerusalem of the Austro-Hungarian Empire,” and “Trieste on the land”. Until the second half of the 19th century, Brody was the biggest trade center in Austro – Hungary. Its significance started to decline after 1879, when it lost the status of a “free city”. Still, as a border area, Brody played an important role.

In 1881, a groups of thousands Jewish refugees came to Brody from Russia. Further, they were sent to Western Europe in special trains, and next to the United States.

At the very beginning of World War One Brody was conquered by Russian troops. The Russians initiated a pogrom of the Jews and burnt down the center of the city, because a Jewish hotel owner’s daughter was allegedly shooting at Cossacks. As it later turned out, it was invented solely for propaganda purposes. Nevertheless, the girl was executed by the Russians, who  also shelled the center of the town. Finally nearly all the Jewish houses were burnt down. Due to the damages of World War Two, Brody never again  recovered to its previous glory.

During interbellum, Brody was a county city forming part of the Tarnopol Province. In 1939, it was inhabited by 18,000 people, including 10,000 Jews.
The hourly tower is a copy of the older, burnt "House of export of Russian tea" of Adamovich Former Adamovich building, 2013, Yurydyka, 2 street
The hourly tower is a copy of the older, burnt "House of export of Russian tea" of Adamovich Former Adamovich building, 2013, Yurydyka, 2 street
Prague bank, 1921 Former Prague Bank, 2013, Zolota street Medalion on the facade of "Prague Bank"
Prague bank, 1921 Former Prague Bank, 2013, Zolota street Medalion on the facade of "Prague Bank"
Hotel "Europe". Postcard of Jewish publisher Leopold Weis Hotel "Europe", 2015, 22 Sichnya, 16 street Bas -relief at Hotel "Bristol"
Hotel "Europe". Postcard of Jewish publisher Leopold Weis Hotel "Europe", 2015, 22 Sichnya, 16 street Bas -relief at Hotel "Bristol"
House of Artur Shnel, Stefanyka, 5 street Bas -reliefs on house of Artur Shnel This building was not preserved
House of Artur Shnel, Stefanyka, 5 street Bas -reliefs on house of Artur Shnel This building was not preserved
Chamber of Commerce, 1915 And now there is a school, Kotsyubynskoho, 8 street Atlantes
Chamber of Commerce, 1915 And now there is a school, Kotsyubynskoho, 8 street Atlantes
Building with a tower - a former court Now there is a pedagogical school, Kotsyubynskoho street Bookstore of publisher Felix Vest, Zolota, 11 street
Building with a tower - a former court Now there is a pedagogical school, Kotsyubynskoho street Bookstore of publisher Felix Vest, Zolota, 11 street
Gymnastic Society "Sokol" ('Falcon'), ca 1925 Former building of the Gymnastic Society "Sokol", 2015, Plastuniv street Bas -reliefs on Zolota, 10 street
Gymnastic Society "Sokol" ('Falcon'), ca 1925 Former building of the Gymnastic Society "Sokol", 2015, Plastuniv street Bas -reliefs on Zolota, 10 street
The majority of Jews was forced to live in the ghetto in Brody due to the Nazi German occupation. In the fall of 1942, couple of thousands local Jews were deported to the Bełzec extermination camp.

First deportation took place on 19 September 1942. According to some sources, the Germans deported about 2,800 – 4,500 people to Bełzec.

In the second deportation (2 November 1942) about 2,500 Jews were taken away from Brody; many people already knowing the truth about Bełżec, committed suicide.

After this action, a closed ghetto (encompassing Browarna and Słomiana Streets) was established. Even though it was a small area, the Germans gathered there not only the rest of the Jews from Brody, but also about 3,000 people from Sokołуwka, Łopatyna, and Olesko.

Samuel Weiler initiated a resistance movement in the ghetto. They were in touch with a Polish conspiracy movement, from which they tried unsuccessfully to get arms. Unfortunately, a mass resistance of people in the ghetto never happened.
Members of the group fled the ghetto just before it was liquidated. Their fate remains unknown.

The final liquidation of the ghetto took place in May 1943. Almost 2,500 of its residents were deported to the Sobibor extermination camp.
Ghetto in Brody Mass grave behind the Jewish cemetery
Ghetto in Brody Mass grave behind the Jewish cemetery
Ohel of tsadik Haim Dovid ben Yoseph and his wife Gitl
Ohel of tsadik Haim Dovid ben Yoseph and his wife Gitl
It is written on the stove: made a trip to Eretz Israel and returned
It is written on the stove: made a trip to Eretz Israel and returned
1910-1914 years
1910-1914 years
Самая интересная мацева - Малка, дочь Ицхака Бабада, ум. 1834 г.
Самая интересная мацева - Малка, дочь Ицхака Бабада, ум. 1834 г.
The new Jewish cemetery of Brody was established in the 1830s by decree of the Austrian Government in connection with the cholera epidemic, which was the reason to close the old cemetery. It is one the most beautiful and well-preserved 19-th century Jewish cemeteries in Ukraine. It is famous for its stone carvings and poetic epitaphs. Presumably, the cemetery was operating until WWII.
Former Hotel "Bristol", Zolota street
Former Hotel "Bristol", Zolota street
Postcards of the early 20th century from Brody were published mainly by two major publishers - Vladislav Kocian and Felix West. Both publishers have a Jewish trace.

One of the first series of postcards ordered by Vladislav Kocian was published by the Jewish publisher Leopold Weiss (the postcards have a signature W.L. Bp - Leopold Weiss, Budapest). Weiss published a large number of postcards with the views of the cities of Galicia.
Leopold Weiss died in "Titanic" in 1912.

Felix West began work in book publishing in 1863 in the Sambir Bookstore of the Jew Jan Rosenheim, and the following year continued his work in the Brody Branch of this bookstore. At the beginning of 1878 he married the daughter of Rosenheim, Felicia. In 1882, Felix West took the bookstore from his father -in -law at Zolota Street, and in 1888 also a printing house.
Jewish family in Brody, 1914-1918 Jews in the market in Brody, 1914-1918 Jews in the market in Brody, 1914-1918
Jewish family in Brody, 1914-1918 Jews in the market in Brody, 1914-1918 Jews in the market in Brody, 1914-1918

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